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Horticulture, Forestry, and Recreation Resources

Thomas D. Warner, Head

Raymond Aslin, State Forester

Charles Marr, Horticulture Extension Program Leader

Keith Lynch, Undergraduate Program Coordinator

Professors Cable, Fry, Geyer, Marr, Mattson, Rajashekar, Warner, and Williams; Associate Professors Barden, Carey, Davis, Janke, Keeley, Khatamian, Kimmins, Lynch, Reid, Shoemaker, Stevens, and Stevenson; Assistant Professors Bremer, Griffin, Lavis, and St. John; Emeriti Professors Clayberg, Leuthold, Morrison, and van der Hoeven.

E-mail: creyer@k-state.edu
www.oznet.ksu.edu/dp_hfrr/

The Department of Horticulture, Forestry, and Recreation Resources is a multi-disciplinary department offering undergraduate programs in horticulture, horticulture science, horticultural therapy, and park management and conservation. Departmental faculty participate in research, extension, and academic programs in these diverse fields which have a positive impact on the quality of life and enhancing the environment. Individual students may have opportunities working with faculty on research or extension programs.

Horticulture programs

K-State offers four-year curricula in horticulture and horticultural therapy. The Department of Horticulture, Forestry, and Recreation Resources also participates in an interdepartmental program in food science and industry.

Horticulture is the science and art of growing plants for environmental improvement, aesthetic value, intensive food production, or social-therapeutic effects. Students, in consultation with faculty advisors, may select courses of study in horticulture or horticulture science. The horticulture program is designed for those seeking to move into the production or service sectors of horticulture or pursue careers in public horticulture. Students completing this program also meet requirements for entrance into graduate programs across the United States and can meet the education requirements for certification by the American Registry of Certified Professionals in Agronomy, Crops, and Soils. The horticulture science program provides a stronger foundation in basic sciences for graduate studies. Students interested in pursuing careers in industry research or extension can also follow this program.

All students are required to take a core of general courses in addition to the agricultural, horticultural, and business courses. Students in the horticulture program will specialize and take additional courses to gain expertise in the areas of fruit and vegetable production, golf course management, greenhouse management, horticultural therapy, landscape design, nursery management, or landscape and turf management. The specializations in golf course management and horticulural therapy are sufficiently different from the others in horticulture that complete requirements are listed separately. After the sophomore year, students are required to complete a three- or six-month internship at an approved site.

Career opportunities for students graduating with a degree in horticulture exist in various arenas, including production, landscape design and management, interiorscape design and management, floral design, botanic gardens and arboreta, garden center operation, athletic grounds management, and golf course operations.

Career opportunities for students graduating with a degree in horticultural therapy exist in various arenas, including arboreta and botanic gardens, mental health services, correctional facilities, assisted-living and extended care facilities, rehabilitation and psychiatric hospitals, and vocational training centers. Graduates also meet requirements for entrance into graduate programs across the United States.

Opportunities exist with the various support industries in the area of sales of fertilizers, chemicals, plant material, seeds, containers, and various other supplies; product development; breeding and seed production companies; and trade magazines. Horticulture majors obtaining a minor in plant pathology or entomology will also find opportunities in horticultural pest diagnosis and consulting. Students considering a career in extension should consider pursuing a master of science degree.

Horticulture

Bachelor of science in agriculture 130 semester hours

Advisors: Bremer, Davis, Fry, Keeley, Khatamian, Kimmins, Lavis, Mattson, Rajashekar, Shoemaker, and Williams.

Students must complete the university general education requirements specified by the College of Agriculture. See the College of Agriculture General Requirements section.

Communications
ENGL 100Expository Writing I3
ENGL 200Expository Writing II3
SPCH 105Public Speaking 1A2
Communications elective3
Foreign language elective3-5
14-16
 
Humanities/social sciences
PSYCH 110General Psychology3
or
SOCIO 211Introduction to Sociology3
or
GEOG 100World Regional Geography3
Elective3
6
 
Quantitative sciences
CHM 210Chemistry I
Organic chemistry elective3-5
MATH 100College Algebra3
Math/physics/computer science elective3
Statistics elective3
16-18
 
Agriculture/biological sciences
AGRON 305Soils4
ASI 500Genetics3
BIOL 210General Botany4
BIOL 500Plant Physiology4
Entomology elective3
GENAG 101Ag Orientation1
HORT 201Principles of Horticultural Sciences4
PLPTH 500Principles Plant Pathology3
26
 
Ag economics/business
ACCTG 231Accounting for Business Operations3
ECON 110Priniples of Macroeconomics3
or
ECON 120Principles of Microeconomics3
Ag economics/business electives9
15
 
Horticulture requirement
HORT 350Plant Propagation3
HORT 520Fruit Production3
or
HORT 560Vegetable Crop Production3
HORT 190Pre-Internship in Horticulture1
HORT 590Horticulture Internship2 or 5
Pest management elective2-3
Environmental science elective3
14-18
 
Horticulture specialization electives
Select an area of horticulture specialization and complete 27-31 hours of specialization courses, chosen in consultation with the advisor.
 
Fruit/vegetable specialization
AGRON 330Weed Science3
ENTOM 612Insect Pest Diagnosis2
or
ENTOM 620Insecticides: Properties and Laws2
HORT 376Herbaceous Ornamental Plants3
HORT 560Vegetable Crop Production
HORT 570Greenhouse Operations Management3
HORT 575Nursery/Garden Center Operations3
 
Specialization electives from list below (10 hours)
AGRON 330Weed Science3
AGRON 375Soil Fertility3
HORT 210Concepts of Floral Design3
HORT 275Concepts of Horticulture Design4
HORT 374Woody Plant Materials I3
HORT 375Woody Plant Materials II3
HORT 508Landscape Maintenance3
HORT 515Turf Management3
HORT 585Arboriculture3
HORT 706Turfgrass Science3
HORT 775Plant Nutrition/Nutrient Management3
27
 
Greenhouse management specialization
HORT 376Herbaceous Ornamental Plants3
HORT 377Plants in the Interior Environment
HORT 570Greenhouse Operations Management3
HORT 575Nursery/Garden Center Operations3
HORT 625Floral Crops Production and Handling4
 
Specialization electives: Choose four courses from list below (12-13 hours)
AGRON 330Weed Science3
HORT 210Concepts of Floral Design3
HORT 275Concepts of Horticultural Design4
HORT 374Woody Plant Materials I3
HORT 375Woody Plant Materials II3
HORT 508Landscape Maintenance3
HORT 515Turf Management3
HORT 585Arboriculture3
HORT 775Plant Nutrition/Nutrient Management3
28-29
 
Landscape design specialization
HORT 275Concepts of Horticultural Design4
HORT 374Woody Plant Materials I3
HORT 375Woody Plant Materials II3
HORT 376Herbaceous Ornamental Plants3
HORT 508Landscape Maintenance3
HORT 510Horticulture Design3
HORT 551Landscape Contracts and Construction3
Design elective
 
Specialization electives from list below (6 hours)
HORT 515Turf Management3
HORT 545Computer Applications in Horticultural Design3
HORT 580Advanced Horticultural Design3
HORT 585Arboriculture3
27
 
Landscape and turf management specialization
AGRON 375Soil Fertility3
or
HORT 706Turfgrass Science3
HORT 374Woody Plant Materials I3
HORT 375Woody Plant Materials II3
HORT 376Herbaceous Ornamental Plants3
HORT 508Landscape Maintenance3
HORT 515Turf Management3
HORT 551Landscape Contracts and Construction3
HORT 585Arboriculture3
Specialization elective3
27
 
Nursery mangement specialization
AGRON 330Weed Science3
HORT 374Woody Plant Materials I3
HORT 375Woody Plant Materials II3
HORT 570Greenhouse Operations Management3
HORT 575Nursery/Garden Center Operations.3
 
Specialization electives: Choose four courses from list below (12-13 hours)
HORT 275Concepts of Horticulture Design4
HORT 376Herbaceous Ornamental Plants3
HORT 508Landscape Maintenance3
HORT 515Turf Management3
HORT 550Landscape Irrigation Systems3
HORT 585Arboriculture3
HORT 625Floral Crops Production and Handling4
HORT 775Plant Nutrition/Nutrient Management3
27-28
 
Free electives2-12
 
Total credits for graduation130
 
Golf course management specialization
Technical core
BIOL 198Principles of Biology4
or
BIOL 210General Botany4
CHEM 210Chemistry I4
Computer science elective3
MATH 100College Algebra3
MATH 205General Calculus and Linear Algebra3
Statistics elective3
20
 
Communications/interpersonal relations
ENGL 100Expository Writing I3
ENGL 200Expository Writing II
SPCH 105Public Speaking 1A2
Communications electives9
17
 
Internship
HORT 190Pre-Internship in Horticulture1
HORT 590Horticulture Internship (at a golf facility)2
HORT 590Horticulture Internship (at a golf facility)3
or
HRIMD 495/   GENBA495Golf Course Internship in Business/Hospitality Management3
6
 
Humanities/social sciences
ECON 110Principles of Macroeconomics3
ECON 120Principles of Microeconomics3
or
AGEC 120Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness3
Humanities/social sciences electives3
Foreign language elective (any course in a modern   language; Spanish preferred)3-5
12-14
 
Business management
ACCTG 231Accounting for Business Operations3
ACCTG 241Accounting for Investing and Finance3
MANGT 420Management Concepts3
MKTG 400Marketing3
Plus one of the following:
FINAN 450Principles of Finance3
MANGT 390Business Law I3
AGEC 202Small Business Operations3
AGEC 513Agricultural Finance3
15
 
Turf management
GENAG 101Ag Orientation1
AGRON 305Soils4
AGRON 335Environmental Quality3
or
FOR 375Introduction to Natural Resource Management
AGRON 375Soil Fertility3
ATM 653Water Management and Irrigation Systems3
or
HORT 550Landscape Irrigation Systems3
HORT 201Principles of Horticultural Science4
HORT 374Woody Plant Materials I3
or
HORT 375Woody Plant Materials II3
HORT 515Turf Management3
HORT 517Golf Course Operations3
HORT 706Turfgrass Science3
PLPTH 500Principles of Plant Pathology3
Horticulture elective3
Pest management elective3
39
 
Hospitality
Select 12 hours from the following list:
HRIMD 220Environmental Issues in the Hospitality Industry2
HRIMD 340Contemporary Issues: Controlled Beverages2
HRIMD 341Principles of Food Product Management3
HRIMD 421Hospitality Service Systems3
HRIMD 441Professional Club Management2
FDSCI 302Introduction to Food Science3
FDSCI 690Principles of HACCP2
12
 
Free electives7-9
 
Total credits for graduation130
 
Horticultural therapy specialization
Communications
ENGL 100Expository Writing I3
ENGL 200Expository Writing II3
SPCH 105Public Speaking 1A2
8
 
Humanities/social sciences
PSYCH 110*General Psychology3
SOCIO 211*Introduction to Sociology3
6
 
Math/chemical sciences
CHM 210*Chemistry I4
MATH 100College Algebra3
STAT 320Elements of Statistics3
or
STAT 330Elementary Statistics for Social Sciences3
10
 
Agriculture/biological sciences
AGRON 305Soils4
BIOL 198*Principles of Biology4
or
BIOL 210General Botany4
ENTOM 320Horticultural Entomology3
GENAG 101Ag Orientation1
PLPTH 500Principles of Plant Pathology3
15
 
Econonmics/business electives
ECON 120*Principles of Microeconomics3
or
AGEC 120Agricultural Economics and Agricultural Business3
Business electives: choose 6 hours from list below:
ACCTG 231Accounting for Business Operations3
AGEC 202Small Business Operations3
ECON 110Macroeconomics3
MANGT 420Management Concepts3
MKTG 400Marketing3
9
 
Horticulture requirement
HORT 190Pre-Internship1
HORT 201Principles of Horticultural Sciences4
HORT 350Plant Propagation3
HORT 520Fruit Production3
or
HORT 560Vegetable Crop Production3
Horticulture electives12
23
 
Horticultural therapy specialization
HORT 235Introduction to the Horticultural Therapy Profession3
HORT 256Human Dimensions of Horticulture3
HORT 374Woody Plant Materials I3
HORT 376Herbaceous Ornamental Plants3
HORT 377Plants of the Interior Environment3
HORT 525Horticulture for Special Populations3
HORT 530Horticultural Therapy Case Management1
HORT 535Horticultural Therapy Field Techniques3
HORT 540Horticultural Therapy Field Experiences3
HORT 570Greenhouse Operations Management3
28
 
Human science and service requirements
PHIL365Medical Ethics3
PSYCH 505Abnormal Psychology3
PSYCH 520Life Span Personality Development.3
SOCIO 520Methods of Social Research4
13
 
Professional electives12
Choose from approved list
 
Free electives6
 
Total credits for graduation130
 

Horticulture science

Bachelor of science in agriculture

130 semester hours

The horticulture science program has similar requirements to the other horticulture programs with the following modifications (modifications are given in italics), deletions and additions.

Students must complete the university general education requirements specified by the College of Agriculture. See the College of Agriculture General Requirements section.

Communications
Speech elective13
Writing elective13
 
Quantitative sciences
CHM 230Chemistry II4
CHM 350General Organic Chemistry3
MATH 2052General Calculus and Linear Algebra3
PHYS 115Descriptive Physics5
CIS 1013Introduction to Information Technologies1
CIS 1023Introduction to Spreadsheet Applications .1
CIS 1043Introduction to Word Processing1
 
Ag/biological sciences
BIOL 450Modern Genetics4
or
ASI 500Genetics
BIOCH 521General Biochemistry3
BIOCH 522General Biochemistry Lab2
Biology elective3-4
 
Ag econ/business electives
(The 9 credit hours of electives are not required; ACCTG 231 and ECON 110 or 120 are still required)
 
Horticulture requirements
HORT 570Greenhouse Operations Management3
Horticulture electives15
Free electives5-10
 
Total credits for graduation130
 
1Horticulture science requires 3 credit hours each of speech and writing electives in lieu of a communications elective.
2Horticulture science requires MATH 205 in lieu of MATH 100 College Algebra.
3Horticulture science requires CIS 101, 102, and 104 in lieu of math/physics/computer science elective.
 

Horticulture minor

A minor in horticulture will consist of 16 credit hours, which will provide the student with a breadth of knowledge in horticulture.

Required:

HORT 201Principles of Horticultural Science4
HORT 350Plant Propagation3
 
Select three courses from the following:
HORT 256Human Dimensions in Horticulture3
HORT 374Woody Plant Materials I3
HORT 375Woody Plant Materials II3
HORT 376Herbaceous Ornamental Plants3
HORT 515Turf Management3
HORT 520Fruit Production3
HORT 560Vegetable Production3
HORT 570Greenhouse Operations
Management3
HORT 575Nursery/Garden Center
Management3
 

Recreation resources

Society faces a future of making potentially infinite demands upon finite natural resources. Appropriate management of America's natural and recreation resources will require the best efforts of dedicated, trained professional managers. A basic objective of recreation resource managers is to provide essential goods and services while maintaining the highest environmental standards. A primary focus of recreation and park professionals is the supply of quality leisure opportunities that lead to an enhanced “quality of life.” A four-year program in park management and conservation is offered with options in interpretation, law enforcement, park management, and recreation business leading to a bachelor of science degree.

Advisors: Cable, Lynch, and Stevenson

Park management and conservation

Bachelor of science in agriculture 130 semester hours

Students must complete the university general education requirements specified by the College of Agriculture. See the College of Agriculture General Requirements section.

Communications requirements
ENGL 100Expository Writing I3
ENGL 200Expository Writing II3
SPCH 106Public Speaking I3
9
 
General agriculture requirement
GENAG 101Ag Orientation1
1
 
Natural sciences requirements
BIOL 210General Botany4
GEOL 100Earth in Action3
CHM 110General Chemistry3
CHM 111General Chemistry Lab .1
PHYS 101The Physical World I3
PHYS 103The Physical World I Lab1
15
 
Social systems requirements
ECON 120Principles of Microeconomics
PSYCH 110General Psychology3
SOCIO 211Introduction to Sociology3
9
 
Mathematics and statistics requirements
MATH 100College Algebra3
STAT 330Elementary Statistics for Social Sciences3
or
STAT 340Biometrics3
6
 
Recreation resources requirements
AGRON 305Soils4
BIOL 433Wildlife Conservation3
CIS 101Introduction to Microcomputer Information Technology1
CIS102Introduction to Microcomputer Spreadsheet Applications1
CIS104Introduction to Microcomputer Word Processing Applications1
FOR 330Dendrology I2
FOR 340Dendrology II2
FOR 375Introduction to Natural Resource Management3
FOR 510Park and Urban Forestry3
HRIMD 230Issues in Tourism2
LAR 322Environmental Issues and Ethics3
MC325Fundamentals of Public Relations3
RRES 210Leisure and Life1
RRES 310Outdoor Recreation Leadership3
RRES 350Parks and Recreation Practicum2
RRES 489Program and Event Planning3
RRES 492Internship in Parks and Recreation6
RRES 575Management of Water Resources for Leisure3
RRES 580Park Operations and Facilities Management4
RRES 635Environmental Interpretation3
RRES 690Park and Recreation Administration4
57
 
Park management and conservation specialization electives
Select an area of specialization and complete 15-22 credit hours of specialization courses, in consultation with the advisor.
 
Interpretation
BIOL 222Field Ornithology1
ENTOM 312General Entomology2
and
ENTOM 313General Entomology Lab1
RRES 640Advanced Environmental Interpretation3
 
Plus pick five courses from the following:
AGCOM 712Environmental Communications3
ANTH 204A General Education Introduction to Cultural Anthropology3
BIOL 303Ecology of Environmental Problems3
BIOL 320Economic Botany3
ENGL 465Introduction to Creative Nonfiction3
FOR 285Forest Resource Management3
GEOG220Environmental Geography I3
GEOG 300Geography of Tourism3
GEOG440Geography of Natural Resources3
GEOL 515Geology of the National Parks3
HIST 511Environmental History3
HIST 536The American West3
HIST 537History of Indians of North America3
MC235Mass Communication in Society3
PSYCH 535Social Psychology3
SOCIO 570Race and Ethnic Relations in the U.S.A.3
SPCH 320Theories of Human Communication3
SPCH 526Persuasion3
Any modern language course
Any theatre course
22
 
Law enforcement
RRES 200Topics: Ranger Training Academy (NPS)*9
or
RRES 200Topics: Ranger Training Academy (NPS + POST)*12
*NPS = National Park Service certification; POST = Police Officers Standards Training
 
Plus choose one course from the following for NPS + POST or two courses for NPS training:
SOCIO 361Sociology of the Criminal Justice System3
SOCIO 362Police and Society3
SOCIO 460Juvenile Delinquency3
SOCIO 561Criminology3
SOCIO 570Race and Ethnic Relations in the U.S.A.3
15
 
Park management
Choose 15 hours from the following:
AGEC 525Natural Resource and Environmental Economics3
ASI 303History and Attitudes of Animal Use3
BIOL302Economic Botany3
ENTOM 312General Entomology2
and
ENTOM 313General Entomology Lab1
FOR 285Forest Resource Management3
GEOG 302Cartography and Thematic Mapping3
GEOG 300Geography of Tourism3
GEOG440Geography of Natural Resources3
GEOG 508Geographic Information Systems I3
GEOG 705Remote Sensing of the Environment3
GEOL 515Geology of the National Parks3
HORT 508Landscape Maintenance3
HORT 515Turf Management3
HORT 585Arboriculture3
LAR 756Design of Parks and Recreation Areas3
PLPTH 500Principles of Plant Pathology3
PSYCH 535Social Psychology3
SOCIO 570Race and Ethnic Relations in the U.S.A.3
Any modern language course
15
 
Recreation business
Select 6 courses from the following:
ACCTG 231Accounting for Business Operations3
ACCTG 241Accounting for Investing and Financing3
ECON 110Principles of Macroeconomics3
FINAN 450Principles of Finance3
LAR 756Design of Parks and Recreation Areas3
MANGT 390Business Law I3
MANGT 420Management Concepts3
MKTG 400Marketing3
MKTG 450Consumer Behavior3
MKTG 635Electronic Marketing3
PLAN 315Introduction to Planning3
SOCIO 570Race and Ethnic Relations in the U.S.A.3
SPCH 311Business and Professional Speaking3
Any modern language course
Plus take 2 credit hours from the following:
KINAny lifetime activity course numbered 100 or higher1
RRES 200Topics in Recreation Resources1
20
 
Free electives11-18
 
Total hours required130

Horticulture courses

HORT 190. Pre-Internship in Horticulture. (1) I. Introduction to the internship program in horticulture; planning for a rewarding internship experience; requirements for completing an internship; how to prepare an oral presentation using visual aids; participation in presentations by previous year's interns. Course designed to be taken the first fall semester on campus, or as early as possible in the academic career. One hour lec. per week. For department majors only.

HORT 201. Principles of Horticultural Science. (4) I. The basic principles of plant science and the environment that apply to horticulture; survey of the industry; plant taxonomy, anatomy, morphology, and physiology; environment and plant growth; plant propagation, pest management, plant breeding. Three hours lec. and two hours lab a week. Recommended pr.: High school biology/botany or conc. enrollment in BIOL 210.

University General Education courseHORT 210. Concepts of Floral Design. (3) I. An introduction to the use of flowers and related products with emphasis on fundamentals of design. Two hours rec. and three hours studio a week. For majors or nonmajors.

HORT 235. Introduction to the Horticultural Therapy Profession. (3) I. This course will consist of a practical exploration of the field of horticultural therapy services in various settings. Students will learn about major job duties such as facilitation techniques, programs, clients, staff, budgets, facilities, and equipment and the variety of populations with which professional horticultural therapists work. Two hours lec. and one hour rec. a week.

University General Education courseHORT 256. Human Dimensions of Horticulture. (3) I, II. Introduction to horticulture applied in schools, psychiatric and medical hospitals, corrections, vocational rehabilitation centers, elderly programs, and consumer horticulture settings. Networking the art and science of horticulture with architecture, business, social sciences, health care, horticulture, and education. Two hours lec. and one hour rec. a week.

HORT 275. Concepts of Horticultural Design. (4) I. Introduction to the landscape design process including historical perspectives and contemporary issues; development of planning, graphical presentation, and communication skills; and application of design principles to horticultural garden design. Two hours rec. and four hours studio per week.

HORT 301. Horticulture Practicum. (1-3) I, II. Experiential approach to learning horticulture through teaching. Students will assist faculty with specific horticulture courses. No more than 3 credits may be used as horticulture specialization electives nor may it substitute for a required horticulture course in the horticulture or horticultural therapy curricula. Pr.: HORT 201, junior standing, and successful completion of practicum assistance course with at least a C.

HORT 350. Plant Propagation. (3) I. Designed to develop proficiency in various skills and techniques necessary for propagation of horticultural plants. Basic fundamentals of seed structure and vegetative makeup of plants are emphasized. Two hours rec. and two hours lab a week. Recommended pr.: HORT 201.

HORT 374. Woody Plant Materials I. (3) I. Identification, ornamental characters, site requirements, and use of woody ornamental deciduous trees and shrubs with special emphasis on the cultivated varieties. Weekly labs consist of lengthy walking campus tours to identify plant specimens. Two hours lec. and two hours lab a week. Recommended pr.: BIOL 198, BIOL 210, or HORT 201.

HORT 375. Woody Plant Materials II. (3) II. Identification, ornamental characters, site requirements, and use of woody ornamental conifers, broadleaf evergreens, vines, ground covers, deciduous flowering shrubs, and small-to-medium-size flowering trees. Weekly labs consist of lengthy walking campus tours to identify plant specimens. Two hours lec. and two hours lab a week. Recommended pr.: BIOL 198, BIOL 210 or HORT 201; and HORT 374.

HORT 376. Herbaceous Ornamental Plants. (3) I. Identification, ornamental characters, culture, propagation, and use of herbaceous annuals and perennials. Two hours rec. and two hours lab. a week. Pr.: BIOL 210 and HORT 201.

HORT 377. Plants in the Interior Environment. (3) II. Identification, ornamental characters, culture, propagation, and use of foliage plants in the interior environment. Two hours lec. and two hours lab. a week. Pr.: BIOL 210 and HORT 201.

HORT 390. Horticulture Topics. (Var.) I, II, S. Lectures and discussion of topics of importance to undergraduate majors. Pr.:Consent of instructor.

Undergraduate and graduate credit in minor field

HORT 508. Landscape Maintenance. (3) I. Fundamentals of maintaining ornamental plant materials such as trees, shrubs, turf, annual color, perennials, vines, and roses in residential, commercial, and golf course landscapes. Two hours lec. and two hours lab a week. Recommended pr.: HORT 201 or BIOL 210; HORT 374 or HORT 375 or FOR 330 or FOR 340; and AGRON 305.

HORT 510. Horticultural Design. (3) II. Reinforcement of the horticultural design process as applied to the use of native and introduced plant materials. Emphasis on functional and aesthetic arrangement of plants in small-scale design to meet site design objectives and adaptation to microclimates. Two three-hour studio periods per week. Pr.: HORT 275 and two plant materials courses.

HORT 515. Turf Management. (3) I. Turfgrass identification and adaptation; establishment and maintenance of lawn and recreational turf areas; turfgrass pests and their control. Two hours rec. and two hours lab each week. Recommended pr.: HORT 201 and AGRON 305.

HORT 517. Golf Course Operations. (3) II, in odd years. Strategies involved in golf course operation, including development of cultural practices, adherence to environmental regulations, personnel management, and budgeting. Two hours lec. and two hours lab. a week. Pr.: HORT 515.

HORT 519. Turfgrass Pest Management. (3) I. Biology, diagnosis, and integrated control of turfgtass diseases, insect pests, and weeds. Two hours lec. and two hours lab per week. Recommended pr.: HORT 515 and one of the following: AGRON 330, ENTOM 320, or PLPTH 500.

HORT 520. Fruit Production. (3) II. In odd years. Principles and practices of cultivating fruit and nut crops commercially. Laboratory offers experiences in pomological practices. Two hours rec. and two hours lab a week. Pr.: HORT 201 and HORT 350.

HORT 525. Horticulture For Special Populations. (3) I. An intensive study of the concepts and methods of using plants and gardening as therapeutic activities with developmentally disabled, geriatric, economically and socially disadvantaged, emotionally disturbed, or educationally deprived clients. Two hours rec. and two hours lab a week.

HORT 530. Horticultural Therapy Case Management. (1) II. Guest lecturer and student presentations of topics relating to professionalism, current issues, or goals of horticultural therapy. The course is intended to help students focus expectations and assumptions about a professional career in horticultural therapy and to give them practice in articulating their understanding of the field. Client case management is used as part of career practice. One hour rec. a week.

HORT 535. Horticultural Therapy Field Techniques. (3) I. Students under supervision will plan, conduct, and evaluate horticultural therapy activities at Manhattan institutional sites selected according to student's interest. A weekly discussion session addresses evaluation and issues of professionalism. Two hours rec. and two hours lab a week. Recommended pr.: HORT 525.

HORT 540. Horticultural Therapy Field Experiences. (3 or 6) I, II, S. Supervised training at institutions with horticultural therapy programs to gain experience in the application and use of horticultural activities for special populations. Six months (1,000 hours) continuous internships required in psychiatric and correctional programs. Two 3-month (500 hours) internships may be completed at two different sties. Students are required to complete 6 credits of field experience before graduation.

HORT 545. Computer Applications in Horticultural Design. (3) I. Introduction to a variety of computer software packages that students may encounter in the nursery/ garden center environment. These include planning, routing, and estimating packages. One hour rec. and four hours lab per week. Pr.: HORT 510 or instructor permission.

HORT 550. Landscape Irrigation Systems. (3) I. Application of the principles and practices of landscape irrigation which involve sprinkler system installation, maintenance and scheduling, electrical troubleshooting, basic hydraulics, and drip irrigation as these topics pertain to residential and commercial landscapes and golf courses. Two hours lec. and two hours lab a week. Recommended pr.: MATH 100; HORT 201 or BIOL 210; AGRON 305. Pr.: Junior standing.

HORT 551. Landscape Contracting and Construction. (3) II. The use, interpretation, and development of planting plans (including contracting, construction, and specifications) as applied to landscape horticulture. Two hours rec. and two hours lab a week. Recommended pr.: HORT 275.

HORT 555. Landscape Irrigation: Design and Contracting. (3) II. This course is intended for students with limited starting knowledge of irrigation design and contracting with the goal of stimulating further interest in these areas. Major topics: design techniques and drawing presentation; plans and specifications; basic hydraulics; estimating and bidding; and the principles of good business practices. Two hours lec. and two hours lab per week. Pr.: HORT 550 or two years of irrigation experience related field work approved by the instructor.

HORT 560. Vegetable Crop Production. (3) II. In even years. Study of production principles and cultural practices involved in the growing of vegetable crops. Two hours lec. and two hours lab or field trips a week. Pr.: HORT 201.

HORT 570. Greenhouse Operations Management. (3) I. Greenhouse systems operations and management including greenhouse layout; structures; glazing materials; heating, ventilation, irrigation, lighting, benching, growing medium handling, and fertilization systems; traffic flow; crop handling, processing and shipping. Two hours rec. and two hours lab a week. Pr.: HORT 201.

HORT 575. Nursery and Garden Center Operations. (3) II. A study of the various practices and methods of operating a commercial nursery for the production of ornamental woody plants used for landscaping purposes. Garden center layout, pricing, mark-up, inventory, plant maintenance, and financing will be discussed. Two hours rec. and three hours lab a week. Recommended pr.: BIOL 210, HORT 350 and AGRON 305.

HORT 580. Advanced Horticultural Design. (3) II. Emphasis is on horticultural design projects with clients, working with the design process, design articulation, and communication with the clients. By appointment. Pr.: HORT 510.

HORT 582. Horticultural Pest Management. (3) II. Strategies involved in horticultural pest management including types, calibration and operation of application equipment, pesticides, legal and safety issues, and non-pesticide control methods. Two hours lec. and three hours lab. a week. Recommended pr.: HORT 201 or BIOL 210, MATH 100, and an entomology, plant pathology, or weed science course.

HORT 585. Arboriculture. (3) II. Principles and practices of maintaining shade and ornamental trees under urban environments. Two hours lec. and two hours lab a week. Recommended pr.: HORT 201 or BIOL 210; HORT 374 or HORT 375 or FOR 330 or FOR 340; and AGRON 305.

HORT 590. Horticulture Internship. (2-5) I, II, S. Principles of commercial or public horticulture activity including exposure to multiple phases of the working horticulture operation. Students will be placed according to specific interest. Required for horticulture majors after having completed 60 hours. Recommended pr.: HORT 190, 201, plus one 500-level horticulture commodity course.

HORT 625. Floral Crops Production and Handling. (4) II. The principles and commercial practices for producing floral crops emphasizing the physical responses of plants to their environment. Aspects of postharvest physiology are also covered. Three hours lec. and three hours lab a week. One Saturday field trip will be taken. Recommended pr.: BIOL 500, HORT 350 and 570.

HORT 640. Horticulture Problems. (Var.) I, II, S. Problems and reports in floriculture, olericulture, ornamental horticulture, pomology, turfgrass, and horticultural therapy. Pr.: Consent of instructor.

HORT 706. Turfgrass Science. (3) II, in even years. Water, temperature, light, soil, and management stresses affecting turfgrass growth; cultural practices that reduce injury. Three hours lec. a week. Pr.: HORT 515.

HORT 725. Postharvest Technology and Physiology of Horticultural Crops. (3) I, in even years. A study of the principles and practices involved in the harvesting, handling and storage of horticultural products. The relationship of plant structure and physiology will be emphasized in discussing effects of postharvest handling and storage to maximize quality and shelf life of products. Three hours lec. a week. Pr.: One horticulture commodity course and BIOL 500.

HORT 751. Human Issues in Horticultural Therapy. (3) I. In odd years. New developments and applications of gardening or horticultural activities for special populations will be emphasized. Procedures for management of horticultural therapy programs, designing therapeutic or rehabilitation activities, and evaluation methods will be discussed. Reading of selected research publications relating to horticultural therapy will be assigned. Three hours rec. a week. Pr.: HORT 525 and a course in statistics.

HORT 775. Plant Nutrition and Nutrient Management. (3) II, even years. Focuses on the macro and micronutrient elements and their function in the growth and development of plants. Emphasis will be placed on the roles of single elements, interactions/balances between elements, and nutrient deficiency/toxicity symptoms as they affect the physiology of the whole plant and management of nutrient applications. The relationships between crop nutrition with production and environmental considerations (yield, drought, temperature, pests) will be explored. Two hours lec. and two hours discussion a week. Recommended pr.: AGRON 305 and BIOL 500.

Forestry courses

FOR 285. Forest Resource Management. (3) II. An examination of forest management including: forestry heritage in the U.S., importance of forests, multiple-use concepts, management practices, utilization, protection, policy, and the profession of forestry. Three hours lec. a week.

FOR 330. Dendrology I. (2) I. Identification, classification, silvical characteristics, distribution, and economic significance of North American angiosperm trees. One hour rec. and three hours lab a week. Pr.: BIOL 210 or equiv.

FOR 340. Dendrology II. (2) II. Identification, classification, silvical characteristics, distribution, and economic significance of North American gymnosperm trees. One hour rec. and three hours lab a week. Pr.: BIOL 210 or equiv.

University General Education courseFOR 375. Introduction to Natural Resource Management. (3) I. A survey of historic and present-day uses, problems, and basic management approaches associated with our renewable and nonrenewable natural resources. The impact of society, economics, law, politics, and philosophy on the management and use of our natural resources will also be examined. Three hours lec. a week.

FOR 510. Forestry for Park Managers. (3) I. Principles and practices of managing forest resources in the park setting. Special emphasis will be given to tree management in high-use areas such as parks where human visitors present special problems for tree survival and development. Two hours lec. and two hours lab a week. Recommended pr.: BIOL 210, FOR 330, and FOR 340.

FOR 641. Forestry Problems. (1-3) I, II, S. Work is offered in various fields of forestry. Pr.: Consent of instructor.

FOR 643. Agroforestry Systems. (2) II. Study of the woody and non-woody components of the land use management systems used in much of the world. Topics will include international agriculture and forestry covering the interaction of crops, livestock, and woody plants. The agroforestry concept, classification of systems, practices used worldwide, and the contribution of agroforestry to local economies of lesser developed countries will be examined. Two hours lec. a week. Field trip required. Recommended pr.: BIOL 201 or BIOL 210 or HORT 201.

Recreation resources courses

RRES 200. Topics in Recreation Resources. (1-3) I, II, S. Discussion of topics and activities of importance in recreation resources. This course can be repeated an unlimited number of times.

RRES 210. Life and Leisure. (1) I. An overview of recreation and leisure fundamentals and history, and the public and private organizations that facilitate and deliver leisure services. Designed to enhance the future leisure service professional's understanding of the significance of recreation and leisure and the contribution each makes to life satisfaction. One hour lec. a week.

RRES 310. Outdoor Recreation Leadership. (3) I. This course will help students effectively communicate the importance of outdoor recreation and natural resource conservation to the public. Students will gain experience in group dynamics and a variety of leadership approaches involving nationally recognized environmental education programs. Some local field trips are required. Three hours lec. a week. Recommended pr.: Sophomore standing.

RRES 350. Parks and Recreation Practicum. (2) I, II, S. Required professional employment (240 hours., 6 weeks): a survey and application of the principles of park and recreation areas management and operations. Studies of selected aspects of natural resource management for recreation. Preparation and presentation of a comprehensive analysis of a specific assigned problem. Pr.: Sophomore in park management and conservation or recreation park administration.

RRES 475. Natural History for Park Managers. (3) I. Natural history of North American vertebrate fauna including identification, management, and ecology of selected fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Three hours rec. a week.

RRES 489. Program and Event Planning. (3) II. A study of the design, supply, and marketing of recreation programs by a variety of public, private, and commercial recreation and park agencies. Three hours lec. a week.

RRES 492. Internship in Parks and Recreation. (6) I, II, S. An intensive, paid practical experience with an approved agency, extending over a 10-week, 400-hour span. For seniors only.

RRES 575. Management of Water Resources for Leisure. (3) II. A study of the management of water resources for leisure time uses. The course investigates the use of rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and marine resources. Management considerations, including agency policy formation, legal rights, use conflicts, and use valuation are covered. Three hours lec. a week.

RRES 580. Park Operations and Facilities Management. (4) I. A focus on the principles and practices of operating and maintaining park and recreation areas and facilities. Special emphasis will be given to the operation of community parks, campgrounds, trails and OHV areas, marinas, zoos, shooting ranges, aquatic facilities, and multipurpose sports complexes and recreation centers. Three hours lec. and two hours lab a week.

RRES 635. Methods of Environmental Interpretation. (3) I. This course focuses on principles and techniques necessary to communicate environmental and cultural values to visitors in park areas. The philosophy, theory, design, and application of interpretive media to communicate information about the environment is studied. Two hours rec. and three hours lab a week. Field trips required. Recommended pr.: FOR 375.

RRES 640. Advanced Environmental Interpretation. (3) II. This course builds on the principles and interpretive techniques which are introduced in RRES 635. Specifically, labs emphasize development of personal interpretive skills and students are introduced to interpretive media not covered in RRES 635 (e.g., video equipment, computers, etc.) The lecture and readings focus on the philosophy of interpretation and the theoretical framework for designing and evaluating interpretive strategies. One hour lec. and four hours lab a week. Field trips required. Pr.: RRES 635.

RRES 690. Parks and Recreation Administration. (4) II. This course will introduce students to the use of specific practices to effectively manage a contemporary leisure service enterprise. Special emphasis is placed on financial management, human resource management, policy development, risk management, and general administrative operations. Four hours lec. a week. Pr.: Junior standing or instructor permission.

RRES 705. Parks and Recreation Theory and Policy. (3) I, II. On sufficient demand. An analysis of the values, principles, theories, and processes of public policy development as it applies to the park and recreation profession. Three hours lec. a week. Pr.: RRES 489.

RRES 799. Problems in Parks and Recreation. (Var., 1-3) I, II, S. A special investigation of a problem in parks and recreation normally requiring a combination of experiential work, research, and writing. Pr.: RRES520 or RRES590.